What are the types of rock art, and what are their defining features? Why should Native American rock art sites be protected? The photographs in this collection depict rock art sites throughout central and southern California. The aboriginal peoples who created this artwork have a very long history in the region. It is difficult to know when the sites in these particular images were created, because currently there are few techniques for dating rock art. Generally speaking, rock paintings in unprotected environments like boulder faces are thought to be less than years old because they are exposed to wind and rain. But carved designs in hard rock like granite are durable and can last for thousands of years in a stable environment. The painted or carved symbols are not writing, as we know it, but they were created to convey information.

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The New Horizons spacecraft captured this high-resolution enhanced colour view of Pluto during its flyby of the dwarf planet on July New findings reveal the strange bright spots on the dwarf planet Ceres are giant salt pans caused by the evaporation of water from a subsurface ocean. Ongoing studies of a massive volcanic field in the Andes mountains show that the rapid uplift which has raised the surface more than six feet in eight years has occurred many times during the past 10, years.

The Question Of Mantle Plumes: If the vast body of mantle plume research has done nothing else, it has revealed the difficulties inherent in trying to plumb the depths of Earth’s interior. The discovery of exceptionally well-preserved, tiny fossil seeds dating back to the Early Cretaceous corroborates that flowering plants were small opportunistic colonizers at that time.

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Courtesy of the Leakey Family. The first was to the Ennedi Mountains in November , and the second was to the Tibesti last month. The central Sahara is one of the richest repositories of ancient rock art on earth and dates from a time when the Sahara was green and full of people and animals. The aims of the expedition were:

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The splendor of the natural setting here must have reminded the Nabataeans of their capital, Petra, hewn into the rosey sandstone cliffs to the north in modern-day Jordan. It is no wonder that they chose this very spot to build their second city, Hegra. The Nabataeans began as pastoral nomads, raising their sheep, goats, and camels in the desert as so many other Arabian tribes have done through the millennia. They also practiced oasis agriculture, utilizing a set of wells dug into the rock.

Their origin is uncertain, but there is a strong possibility that they came from the Hejaz region of northwest Saudi Arabia. The deities they worshipped were similar to those honored by ancient cultures in that area and the root consonants of their name — n, b, t, w — occur in the early Semitic of the Hejaz. From early in their history, they had connections with Mesopotamia and may have been the Nabatu Arabs mentioned by the Assyrians in the eighth century BCE. They were also known for their incredible familiarity with the desert and their ability to fade into it to evade enemy tribes.

Their system of hidden cisterns dug deep in the interior provided water for their livestock and their people.

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Buddhist stone carvings at Ili River , Kazakhstan. The term rock art appears in the published literature as early as the s. These include pictographs , which were painted or drawn onto the panel rock surface , petroglyphs , which were carved or engraved onto the panel, and earth figures such as earthforms, intaglios and geoglyphs. Some archaeologists also consider pits and grooves in the rock, known as cups, rings or cupules, as a form of rock art.

In several regions, it remains spiritually important to indigenous peoples , who view it as a significant component of their cultural patrimony. As such, images taken from cave art have appeared on memorabilia and other artefacts sold as a part of the tourist industry.

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As Pink has mentioned in the past , when she was little she was sure that she would end up marrying Jon Bon Jovi. However, that all came crashing down when the New Jersey rocker ended up marrying Dorothea Hurley in It was the first time someone ever broke my heart. Are you happy, you and Dorothea? However, Pink’s husband, Carey Hart , didn’t exactly appreciate the gesture. Like, I thought it was really funny. But Carey didn’t think it was that funny.

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The New Horizons spacecraft captured this high-resolution enhanced colour view of Pluto during its flyby of the dwarf planet on July New findings reveal the strange bright spots on the dwarf planet Ceres are giant salt pans caused by the evaporation of water from a subsurface ocean. Ongoing studies of a massive volcanic field in the Andes mountains show that the rapid uplift which has raised the surface more than six feet in eight years has occurred many times during the past 10, years.

The Question Of Mantle Plumes: If the vast body of mantle plume research has done nothing else, it has revealed the difficulties inherent in trying to plumb the depths of Earth’s interior.

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Life timeline and Nature timeline Cueva de las Monedas Nearly caves have now been discovered in France and Spain that contain art from prehistoric times. Initially, the age of the paintings had been a contentious issue, since methods like radiocarbon dating can produce misleading results if contaminated by samples of older or newer material, [3] and caves and rocky overhangs where parietal art is found are typically littered with debris from many time periods.

But subsequent technology has made it possible to date the paintings by sampling the pigment itself and the torch marks on the walls. For instance, the reindeer depicted in the Spanish cave of Cueva de las Monedas places the drawings in the last Ice Age. The oldest date given to an animal cave painting is now a pig that has a minimum age of 35, years old at Timpuseng cave in Sulawesi, an Indonesian island.

Indonesian and Australian scientists have dated other non-figurative paintings on the walls to be approximately 40, years old. The method they used to confirm this was dating the age of the stalactites that formed over the top of the paintings. Cave paintings in El Castillo cave were found to date back to at least 37, years old by researchers at Bristol University, making them the oldest known cave art in Europe, 5—10, years older than previous examples from France.

Because of the cave art’s age, some scientists have conjectured that the paintings may have been made by Neanderthals.

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Radioactive decay[ edit ] Example of a radioactive decay chain from lead Pb to lead Pb. The final decay product, lead Pb , is stable and can no longer undergo spontaneous radioactive decay. All ordinary matter is made up of combinations of chemical elements , each with its own atomic number , indicating the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Additionally, elements may exist in different isotopes , with each isotope of an element differing in the number of neutrons in the nucleus.

A particular isotope of a particular element is called a nuclide.

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Now, for the first time, researchers have successfully determined the age of a Martian rock—with experiments performed on Mars. The work, led by geochemist Ken Farley of the California Institute of Technology Caltech , could not only help in understanding the geologic history of Mars but also aid in the search for evidence of ancient life on the planet. However, shortly before the rover left Earth in , NASA’s participating scientist program asked researchers from all over the world to submit new ideas for experiments that could be performed with the MSL’s already-designed instruments.

Keck Foundation Professor of Geochemistry and one of the 29 selected participating scientists, submitted a proposal that outlined a set of techniques similar to those already used for dating rocks on Earth, to determine the age of rocks on Mars. Findings from the first such experiment on the Red Planet—published by Farley and coworkers this week in a collection of Curiosity papers in the journal Science Express—provide the first age determinations performed on another planet.

The paper is one of six appearing in the journal that reports results from the analysis of data and observations obtained during Curiosity’s exploration at Yellowknife Bay—an expanse of bare bedrock in Gale Crater about meters from the rover’s landing site. The smooth floor of Yellowknife Bay is made up of a fine-grained sedimentary rock, or mudstone, that researchers think was deposited on the bed of an ancient Martian lake.

In March, Curiosity drilled holes into the mudstone and collected powdered rock samples from two locations about three meters apart. Once the rock samples were drilled, Curiosity’s robotic arm delivered the rock powder to the Sample Analysis on Mars SAM instrument, where it was used for a variety of chemical analyses, including the geochronology—or rock dating—techniques. One technique, potassium-argon dating, determines the age of a rock sample by measuring how much argon gas it contains.

Over time, atoms of the radioactive form of potassium—an isotope called potassium —will decay within a rock to spontaneously form stable atoms of argon This decay occurs at a known rate, so by determining the amount of argon in a sample, researchers can calculate the sample’s age. Although the potassium-argon method has been used to date rocks on Earth for many decades, these types of measurements require sophisticated lab equipment that could not easily be transported and used on another planet.

Farley had the idea of performing the experiment on Mars using the SAM instrument.

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