Lawyers should be interested in the forensic examination of disputed records for three reasons: Due diligence in court. Many attorneys are aware that forensic document examiners can determine the authenticity of a signature and perform various examinations on typewriters and printed documents. However, many attorneys do not know that additions, alterations or rewriting can also be detected — by a forensic chemist. A forensic chemist is able to do more than a forensic document examiner. A forensic chemist can: Ink dating The dating of inks is done in three primary forms.
Standard for Terminology Used for Forensic Footwear and Tire Impression Evidence
History[ edit ] The last remnant of old ownership marks The Vinland map first came to light in three years before the discovery of the Norse site at L’Anse aux Meadows in , bound in a slim volume with a short medieval text called the Hystoria Tartarorum usually called in English The Tartar Relation , and was unsuccessfully offered to the British Museum by London book dealer Irving Davis on behalf of a Spanish-Italian dealer named Enzo Ferrajoli de Ry.
Witten II , who offered it to his alma mater, Yale University. It was initially treated with suspicion, partly because wormholes in the map and the Relation did not match. In spring , however, Witten’s friend Thomas Marston, a Yale librarian, acquired from London book dealer Irving Davis a dilapidated medieval copy of books of Vincent of Beauvais ‘s encyclopedic Speculum historiale “Historical Mirror” , written in two columns on a mix of parchment and paper sheets, with initial capitals left blank, which turned out to be the missing link; the wormholes showing that it had formerly had the map at its beginning and the Relation at its end.
All traces of former ownership marks, except for a small part of a bright pink stamp which overlapped the writing on folio of the Speculum, had been removed, perhaps to avoid tax liability for the former owner although as historian Kirsten Seaver noted many years later, stamps on random book pages indicate institutional, not private ownership.
Evidence Collection and Laboratory Analysis. GENERAL EVIDENCE COLLECTION GUIDELINES. Before evidence is collected: Make sure there are no suspected devices that have not functioned, firearms, needles, drug paraphernalia, or blood or other body fluids from .
Art forgery dates back more than two thousand years. Roman sculptors produced copies of Greek sculptures. Presumably[ clarification needed ] the contemporary buyers knew that they were not genuine. During the classical period art was generally created for historical reference, religious inspiration, or simply aesthetic enjoyment. The identity of the artist was often of little importance to the buyer. During the Renaissance , many painters took on apprentices who studied painting techniques by copying the works and style of the master.
As a payment for the training, the master would then sell these works. This practice was generally considered a tribute, not forgery, although some of these copies have later erroneously been attributed to the master. Following the Renaissance, the increasing prosperity of the middle class created a fierce demand for art. Near the end of the 14th century, Roman statues were unearthed in Italy, intensifying the populace’s interest in antiquities , and leading to a sharp increase in the value of these objects.
This upsurge soon extended to contemporary and recently deceased artists. Art had become a commercial commodity , and the monetary value of the artwork came to depend on the identity of the artist. To identify their works, painters began to mark them. These marks later evolved into signatures.
We offer over 37 years of experience and training in a wide range of forensic science and private investigation disciplines. We specialize in ink dating, handwriting, art dating, questioned document examinations, fraud detection and forensic analysis. Stewart was born in Asheville, North Carolina. Stewart has worked for the U. Government as a forensic scientist for over 25 years. During that time he has worked on many notable cases to include; the Unabomber, the John Wilkes Booth diary, numerous accused Nazi war criminals, e.
Forensic Ink Dating is the chemical analysis of inks to determine the age of the ink on paper, or the date of introduction of the ink used on a particular document.
Undertaken with a view to establishing a fully, internationally accepted, well proven and correctly underpinned certification of a work of art. Items which may have a specific signature claim, those with an earlier expert qualification of authenticity, as well as those that currently have none. This requires dedicated, detailed, expert academic and archival research, which is usually necessary to conduct internationally, along with a variety of forensic applications.
Identifying and confirming the identity of a previously anonymous artist, or the studio or workshop from which a work of art probably first came. An artist which may not have been previously formerly identified or associated with it. Re-examining and investigating a previously assigned artist attribution which is possibly incorrect, or one that has been formally challenged or questioned.
Conducting the multilingual research required for the investigation and confirmation of the provenance, history, lineage and prior ownership of a work of art. Identifying fakes and forgeries, determining those works of art which may be studio or later copies, or previously misrepresented and wrongful attributions. Investigating alleged art fraud and forgery issues, assisting and advising those litigating or prosecuting the fact.
Conducting all fine art related due diligence and duty of care enquiries, prepurchase or sale related studies and advising clients in matters of consolidating safe and secure future family distribution. Simply put, we are here to help in all fine art related matters With a view to establishing a flawless case for clients, Freemanart investigate works of art from all genres, eras and most geographical origins. Building a case that can lead us to an absolute, accurate and certain confirmation of a work of arts authenticity, or a firm and decisively convincing artist attribution.
One that is both recognised and fully accepted unilaterally.
Ink Dating Expert Witnesses
Forensic document examination has been instrumental in resolving disputes in both civil and criminal litigation, and other investigations. Analysis are conducted to determine the manner in which a document was prepared, by whom it was or was not executed, and if changes have occurred since its production. Steve Dubedat has been a forensic document examiner and handwriting expert who has been conducting signature and handwriting examinations and other analysis since using scientific methodology and principles recognized within the field of forensic document examination.
Training was provided over a four year period within the NSW Police Forensic Services Group under the guidance and supervision of several other document examiners and handwriting experts. Since , Steve has given evidence and been accepted as an expert witness in document examination on hundreds of occasions in various jurisdictions. A wide variety of documents is routinely submitted for analysis, including last will and testaments, business contracts, cheques, invoices, credit card receipts, anonymous letters, lease agreements, insurance forms, legal files and medical records.
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Ink Dating and Paper Analysis Evidence may not be visible to the naked eye Ink Testing and Paper Examinations How can ink analysis and paper examinations help determine when a document was produced? The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent.
Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. Ink Dating and Ink Aging An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability. If an entry is dated in , but the ink was not available until then the document could not have been created in Inks contain chemical solvents that evaporate and generally go through a drying process that can last up to 2 years.
Comparing Writing Inks Chemical analysis can be conducted on a suspicious entry to determine if it is consistent with other associated or surrounding writings.
Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination
In Depth Tutorials and Information Ink Analysis Introduction Chemical and physical analysis of inks on questioned documents provides valuable information regarding their authenticity. Comparison of these chemical and physical properties of two or more inks can determine: When dating tags are detected, it is possible to determine the actual year or years when the ink was manufactured.
Dating tags are unique chemicals that have been added to ball-point inks by some ink companies as a way to determine the year the ink was made. Relative age comparison tests performed on inks of the same formula and written on the same type of paper with the same storage conditions performed by measuring changing solubility properties of inks can estimate how long inks have been written on paper.
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Enter Characters from Left: The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating.
Ink Dating Expert Witnesses
Pennsylvania Areas of Expertise: North Carolina Areas of Expertise: Lyter provides consultation, examination, training, research and testimony in matters of forensic science, including ink and paper analysis, trace evidence, and questioned document examination. California Areas of Expertise:
CIW Talks are minute sessions spread throughout the week that feature speakers presenting on various themes. Talks take a variety of forms and may incorporate interviews, conversations or .
Contact Ink Dating There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents: Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr.
Cantu in the s. Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc. Ink Comparison Approach 3. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document. Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then: